Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically by using the online submission and review web site ijmso.unilag.edu.ng or email directly to the editor in chief (jolaleru@unilag.edu.ng). This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. Authors are requested to submit the text, tables, and graphs in electronic form to this address. Authors who are unable to provide an electronic version or have other circumstances that prevent online submission must contact the Editor In Chief prior to submission to discuss alternative options. The Publisher and Editor regret that they are not able to consider submissions that do not follow these procedures.

Processing and Publication Charges

The processing charge of Ten Thousand Naira (N10, 000 OR $25) and the Publication charge of Ten thousand Naira (OR $25) are respectively to be paid at the point of submisson and after the paper is accepted for publication respectively. The Account number is Association of Mathematical Sciences and Optimization, UBA LTD, 2183663830. Foreign authors will be advised on the mode of payment accordingly. Processing charges cannot be waived. However, publication charges can be waived in exceptional cases when the author is able to convince the Editor that they cannot afford it.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the Journal for review.
Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author, all the authors must submit the following contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address of the organizations of each author.

All necessary files have been uploaded:
Manuscript:
• Include keywords

. 2000 AMS Subject Classification
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa. The references must follow the order of citation in the body of the work.
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare.

Plagiarism
Authors must not use the words, figures, or ideas of others without attribution. All sources must be cited at the point they are used, and reuse of wording must be limited and be attributed or quoted in the text.

IJMSO uses Crossref Similarity Check (iThenticate) and Eagles Scan to detect submissions that overlap with published and submitted manuscripts.

Manuscripts that are found to have been plagiarized from a manuscript by other authors, whether published or unpublished, will be rejected and the authors may incur sanctions. Any published articles may need to be corrected or retracted.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.
Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.
Authors must disclose any interests in two places:

1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file or the manuscript file . If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted.

2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the Journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check or Eagle Scan.

Preprints
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with IJMSO's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the Journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author:

(a) the reason for the change in author list and

(b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Open access

All articles published in this Journal are open access licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Subscription
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository.
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.

The Journal does not allow adveritising except conferences by the publisher, the Association of Mathematical Siences and Optimization.

For all articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Copyright and license

  • Copyright on any article published in the  Journal is retained by the author(s).
  • Authors grant the publisher a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
  • Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.
  • The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.

Language
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Articles can also be sent direct to the email of Editor in Chief, jolaleru@unilag.edu.ng. Only PDF flies generated by Editable files ( LaTeX) are acceptable for submission. However, the Journal can recommend the service of those who can typeset in Latex to assist authors who may not be able to at a token. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Open Peer Review System

This Journal uses open peer review system, which means the identities of the authors are not concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. However, the reviewers reserve the right to conceal their names in their reports. Since one of our aims is mentorship, the authors and reviewers are given permission to commuicate with each other after a request is approved by the Editor in Chief to that effect.  To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.

Editorial process and time frame

  1. Once an article is received for consideration for publication, the Managing Editor do the initial review and check to make sure it conforms to our Journal format as shown in the website. If it does not, it will be sent back to the author to correct and resubmit. If the initial check and review show that the paper cannot be publishable, it is rejected and sent back to the author(s) as a matter of final decision. Only articles written with Latex are accepted for review.
  2. The second stage is that the Managing Editor will send it to the appropriate Section Editor whose field of research is closest to that of the submitted paper.
  3. The Section Editor is expected to send it to two Reviewers whose area of specializations fall within that of the subject of the paper. They could be local, foreign or both. Reviewer’s forms are also attached for the Reviewer’s use.
  4. The Section Editor is expected to follow up with the Reviewers to make sure the reports are submitted at the earliest time possible, preferably within 3 months.
  5. No action is taken on the reports until they are at least two.
  6. If the two reports are positive, with minor corrections, the papers are sent to the author(s) to effect the corrections after which they are processed for publication. If the two reports call for major reviews, the reports are sent to the authors to be resubmitted after the papers are revised and the revised papers will be resent back to the reviewer(s) to check if they are publishable. This process will be repeated until the reviewers are satisfied with the papers or the author(s) decide(s) not to resubmit.
  7. Once the paper is acceptable for publication, the respective Section Editor transfers the accepted papers to the Managing Editor who in turn will recommend it to the Editor in Chief for Publication.
  8. The Editor in Chief will send the acceptance letter to the authors and ask them to pay the publication fees after which the paper will be sent to the Journal Technical Staff to produce the galley proof for the authors.
  9. Once the author (s) is satisfied with the Galley Proof, the paper is published online in a couple of days.
  10. The time frame from submission to publications is about four months. 
  11. Digital Object Identifier: The Journal is now registered with CROSSREF under the University of Lagos as could be observed from the last four articles in Volume 7 No 1 to date.

Publication Regularity

Two volumes are published in a year.  However the authors need not to wait for any voume to be full before their articles are published online. Each article is published as soon as the Editor in Chief is satified that all the corrections are effected and the galley proofs are approved by the authors.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Results
Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Appendices

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length: 200 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Highlights
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 125 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Graph/diagram

Electronic graph/diagram
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original graph/diagram.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your graph/diagram files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic graph/diagram is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic graph/diagram is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic graph/diagram is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color graph/diagram
Please make sure that graph/diagram files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic graph/diagram.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Note that the refeneces must be ordered according to how they are cited in the body of the work. 

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Archiving/Content Preservation

The University of Lagos Library has registered the Journal with the Google Scholar and CROSSREF so that all articles published in the Journal are indexed/archived in the Google Scholars, CROSSREF and African Journal Online (AJOL). 

Repository Policy

Authors are free to post their pre-publication manuscript in institutional repositories or on their websites prior to and during the submission process and to post the Publisher's final formatted PDF version after publication without embargo.